Support for this ~esea~ch was provided by gI'ants through the Program around the Social Affects of Information and Robotic Technology at Carnegie-Mellon University to both experts a, m by a offer f~om the National Scientific research Foundation (No. RII-840991) for the fi~st writer. Parts of this chapter had been wri tten while the fi~st autho~ was on leave in the Office of Industrial Anatomist and Architectural Management at Stanfo~d Unive~sity. Robots happen to be bei~g i~troduced i~ i~creasi~g ~umbers all over the world. While o~ly a few 100 robots had been used i~ the U~ited States 70, 7, 000 were utilized in 1983 (Ayres & Miller, 1983; Hunt & Hunt, (983). Forecasts of how many robots will be used in 1990 i~ the U~ited States selection between 75, 000 and 150, 000 (Hunt & Hunt, 1983). Little is well known, however , about how exactly individual personnel react to the development of robots or about the changes needed in organizations to compliment robotics. The research is targeted on ~~derstandi~g the human side of robotics--how persons react to programs, how and once organizations should be modified to support t'obotics, and what successful strategies will be for the implementation of robotics.
The Robotic Institute of America describes a robotic as a programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to maneuver objects through variable designed motions to execute a variety of jobs (Robot Commence of America, 1982). Two characteristics dHfet'entiate t'obots via most other kinds of automation: multiple task capability and programmability. The software used most frequently in U. S. factories today, in jobs that involve moving material, welded, drilling, or perhaps spray painting, are called level I Ot' first-generation programs. Researchers have become in the process of developing t'obots, known as level II or perhaps second-generation software, with more superior sensing and thinking capacities. For example , a good II automatic robot that is in a position of determining the location of parts of diverse shapes and sizes is currently bei~g created. Other examples of level 2 robots consist of those that my own underground coal seams, discover gas leakages, or perform sophisticated i~spection tasks. Ayres and Callier
(1983) provide a great description of the current and expected future capabilities of robotics. two
one particular: 1 this kind of paper. we first develop a ge: leral framework for' u: lde! " sta: ldi: lg electronics the effects of robots O: m i: ldividuals and orga: lizatio: ls. We i actually: lcorporate fi: ldi: lgs from our discipline studies with the implementatio: l of robotics as well as fi: ldi: lgs from other discipline studies in the impact of robotics i actually: l the general structure. The methodology and effects of our field studies are described in greater depth in Argote, Goodman, a: ld Schkade (1983) a: ld Argote and Goodman (1984). All of us conclude the paper with suggestions for research workers who will be analyzing the implementation of t'obotics and with recommendations for managers who have plan to use robotics inside their organizations.
A General Structure
The usage of robotics may well have a profound impact on the organization of work a. 'ld on the production of ot'ganizations. Robots commonly require: lew skills of both production and tech support team personnel and require deeper i: lteractions among efficient areas (Argote. Goodman, & Schkade, 1983). Robots might displace some employees a. 'ld alter the jobs of people who are retai: led (Guest, 1984; Office of Technology Assessment, 1984). Programs may also permit organizations to get more flexible simply by decreasing system times affiliated wi th product changeovers. Moreover, robots may permit organizations to obtain greater consiste: lcy we: l the caliber of their products (Ayres & Callier, 1983; Customer, 1984). With this section, we all develop a general framework pertaining to anticipating these types of effects of r'obots on individuals and organizations as well as for predicti: lg situations under that this use of robots will enhance organizational efficiency.
L" d order to present our...